Blood transfusion is a vital part of the health care service. Increasing advancement in the field of transfusion medicine and technology has necessitated enforcing measures to ensure quality of blood and its products.
In order to improve the standards of blood bank and transfusion services in the country, there are formulated comprehensive standards to ensure better quality control system on collection, storage, testing and distribution of blood and its components.
To attain maximum safety, the requirements of good field practices moving forward towards total quality are vital for management of blood transfusion services.
Blood should be accepted only from voluntary, non-remunerated, low risk, safe and healthy donors.
Efforts should be directed towards encouraging and retaining adequate numbers of repeat donor. Donors should be appropriately recorgnised and felicitated for their contribution.
Field teams should educate donors prior to collection of blood regarding the risk of TTIs.
Pre-donation counseling by trained staff should be made available maintaining privacy and confidentiality. Pre-donation information should include; modes of transmission leading to risk behavior and self exclusion for patients safety.
Tests carried out on donated blood
Confidentiality of test results
Need for honest answers in view of window period.
A questionnaire should be given questionnaire should be followed, well explained and easy to be answered by the donor.
For illiterate donors, assistance be given by the donor registration staff.
Physical examination of the potential donor should be performed by a trained medical staff to review the donor's health.
Age of donors should be 17 to 65 years
General appearance- the donor should appear in good health.
Donor skinshould be free from skin lesion
Pregnancy - not allowed to donate
Donors who give history suggestive of HIV infection such a swollen glands, persistent cough, unexplained weight loss, night sweats/fever, skin rashes and skin infections and prolonged diarrhea should be differed permanently.
This is offered to a person or a group of people intending to donate blood, it is an interactive discussion following a standard questionnaire relating to how well a person is, sexual relationships, chronic diseases if any among others. If one is very fine with no complaint and no diseases, the potential donor qualifies to donate.
Post- Donation Counseling is offered to a person who has donated blood and has learnt the results of; HIV, Hepatitis B &C, Syphilis and has been told diagnosis of these diseases by the counselor.
They should drink more fluids than usual during the four hours before and after donating blood
They should keep the plaster on the vein puncture site for some hours
They should not consume alcohol until after 12 hours
Voluntary Non-remunerated Blood Donors- these are not induced to donate blood and do not know the recipient
Replacement Donors- Donate when someone is in need of blood
Paid Donors- These are people who are paid to donate blood (This is not here in Uganda). We encourage and promote 100% voluntary blood donation.
Blood should be drawn from donors only by a qualified medical person.
Blood area should be clean, congenial, comfortable and conveniently approachable.
A strict standardized procedure should be in use to achieve surgical cleanliness for preparing venepuncture site to provide maximum possible assurance of sterile product.
Bags for collection of blood should be sterile, pyrogen free and disposable with a closed system of collection as per standards provided by BTS or recorgnised body.
Volume of blood collected should be proportionate to the volume of anti-coagulant, with + or -10 percent variation and should not exceed 10ml per kilogram body weight limited to a volume of 500mls.
Samples for laboratory tests. Blood samples in the pilot tube should be collected at the time of collection of blood by the same person who collects blood. They should be marked before collection to be identified with the unit of blood.
Blood donation camps should be organized to augment blood stocks. The BDR should contact offices, institutions, industries, social, religious organisations,colleges,schools to collect the need based we volume of blood from the targeted group of donors located at a particular venue at regular intervals i.e. 3-4 months.
Adequate publicity and IEC materials should be made available to organizations.
Donation site should be inspected prior to blood collection.
Camps, drives, normal sessions should be organized in an environment which is conducive and comfortable. The area should be cleaned before and after blood collection.
Field teams and blood banks in general should maintain quality at each step from donor recruitment, selection and collection to the final product. The method of blood collection should be the same as at fixed sites.
Blood and its components could contain infectious agents hence should be handled with precaution.